0x00000062697A756E

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:               __________________________                    :
:           _  |     /              |  \        t             :
:      B  *  \ | sin|  (_|_) * t + (|)  |       /             :
:       m     \|     \              |  /        |             :
:B  = ------------------------------------- +   |   H (t) * dt:
: t                 __2    |                    |    i        :
:                   ||  + (|)                   /             :
:                          |                    0             :
:JavE.........................................................:

Table of contents:

  1. PREFACE
  2. GENERAL RULES
  3. SYMBOLS

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Preface

I think, that all schematics contained in this service may deserve some comment. I've decided to make them in text-mode, mostly because this is the only reasonable way to present schematics on text browser. Maybe pictures, especially in colour, are nicer -- but really not much more easier to read; vector graphics is in addition also printable with good quality -- but those need graphic browser or external software -- and main principle of this site was to maintain it usable by text browser. I think the requirement is met.

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General rules

How to read text mode schematics? Just as any other, when you're keeping in mind some basic rules.
Take for example wiring: when you see two wires crossed with angle of 90degrees, it means, they're crossing without connection:

    |             |       \    /
    |             |        \  /
----+-----  OR ------- OR   \/
    |             |         /\
    |             |        /  \

And why? Because when the wires are connected, there ALLWAYS meet only three of them in one point. At this circumstance, you don't need to place the dot to mark connection. Here the dot is used, mostly because it is hard to find font that is expressing a "T" connection. Of course, sometime it is vital to show, that some wires are meeting in the same point (like in HiFi circuits), then it has to be made in such a way, that it leaves no doubt:

   |       ---. |          --. |               |
---*           \|             \|               |
   *--- OR -----* OR even  ----* but NEVER  ---*---
   |            |             /|               |
   |            |          --' |               |

Simple, Isn't it? And how helpful!
Another thing is general flow of signal and energy. In most cases the signal flows from left end of the drawing to the right, but sometimes it is that two signals are starting from the left and right end to meet in the middle, where the output is drawn. As for the power flow -- there are two modes of drawing:

+--------------------+------------------------------------+
|1.   .-----*--O Vcc |2.                                  |
|     |     |        |                                    |
|    | |   | |       |                                    |
|    | |   | |       |                  ______            |
|    |_|   |_|       |               | /      |           |
|     |     |        |               |/       |           |
|  0--*     *--O     |   O--*-----*--|        *--O        |
|     |  | /         |      |     |  |>       |           |
|     |  |/          |      |     |  | \      |           |
|     *--|           |      |     |     |     |           |
|     |  |>          |      |     |     |     |           |
|     |  | \         |     | |   | |   | |   | |          |
|     |     |        |     | |   | |   | |   | |          |
|     |     |        |     |_|   |_|   |_|   |_|          |
|    | |   | |       |      |     |     |     |           |
|    | |   | |       |      |     |     |     |           |
|    |_|   |_|       |      |    ===   ===    |           |
|     |     |        |      `-----------------*---0 Vcc   |
|     |     |        |                                    |
|    ===   ===       |                                    |
+JavE----------------+------------------------------------+

First style, shown on the left picture, is more common, and helps to understand the voltage spread and current flow, the second, on the right picture, is mostly used in RF design, not only because it is easier to draw OB amplifier that way, but also it helps to understand flow of signal and impedances. When circuit has a feedback loop, then in first mode it is drawn below the transistors, in second mode -- above the transistors.

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Symbols

Most symbols of electronic elements used here are built-in symbols of JavE versatile text editor. Some of the symbols not included in database I've designed myself, and full JavE clipboard library is available at download section. I think, that the shapes are pretty obvious, but to prevent unneccessary questions, here is complete list of symbols used:


**PASIVE**

+--------------------------+--------------------------+
|        RESISTOR          |       GROUND SIGN        |
|  ____     |              |                          |
|-|____|-  | |  --/\/\/--  |        |      |          |
|          | |             |       ===    _|_         |
|          |_|             |             ////         |
|           |              |                          |
+--------------------------+--------------------------+
|        CAPACITOR         | ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR   |
|        ||       |        |            |             |
|     ---||---    |        |            |  +          |
|        ||     -----      |          =====           |
|               -----      |          -----           |
|                 |        |            |             |
|                 |        |            |             |
+--------------------------+--------------------------+
|         INDUCTOR         |     INDUCTION CHOKE      |
|  -)      |               |                  |       |
|   )      )               |                  #|      |
|   )      )    --uuuu--   |       ____       #|      |
|  -)      )               |     --####--     #|      |
|          )               |                  #|      |
|          |               |                  |       |
+--------------------------+--------------------------+
|    INDUCTOR W/ CORE      |        TRANSFORMER       |
|           |              |                          |
|   -)|     )|     ____    |            |(--          |
|    )|     )|   --nnnn--  |         --)|(            |
|    )|     )|             |           )|(            |
|   -)|     )|             |         --)|(            |
|           |              |            |(--          |
+--------------------------+--------------------------+
|         QUARTZ           |       CERAMIC FILTER     |
|           |#|            |        ---.   .---       |
|         --|#|--          |           |   |          |
|           |#|            |          --- ---         |
|                          |          #######         |
|                          |          -------         |
|                          |             |            |
+--------------------------+--------------------------+

**SWITCH**

+--------------------------+--------------------------+
|         SPSP NO          |         SPSP NC          |
|                          |                          |
|          --/ --          |         --|\+--          |
+--------------------------+--------------------------+
|         SPDP             |      NOTE:               |
|          . -- no         |When marked "S"- is switch|
|     sw --|\+- nc         |When marked "K" - is relay|
|                          |                    blades|
+--------------------------+--------------------------+
|       RELAY COIL         |          CLAMP           |
|           |              |                          |
|          _|_             |           --O            |
|         |_/_| K..        |      --> a     a >--     |
|           |              |                          |
+--------------------------+--------------------------+

**SEMICONDUCTOR**

+-----------------------------------------------------+
|              NPN BIJUNCTION TRANSISTOR:             |
|              | /C   C\ |      C \     / E           |
|              |/       \|        _\___A_             |
|           B--|         |--         |                |
|              |>       <|           B                |
|              | \E   E/ |                            |
+-----------------------------------------------------+
|              PNP BIJUNCTION TRANSISTOR:             |
|              | /C   C\ |      C \     / E           |
|              |/       \|        _\___V_             |
|           B--|         |--B        |                |
|              |<       >|           B                |
|              | \E   E/ |                            |
+-----------------------------------------------------+
|                  JFET TRANSISTOR:                   |
|          P-DOPED                 N-DOPED            |
|        |         |             |         |          |
|     D--|         |--D       D--|         |--D       |
|        |         |             |         |          |
|     S--|<--G G-->|--S       S--|>--G G--<|--S       |
|        |         |             |         |          |
+-----------------------------------------------------+
|                  MOS TRANSISTOR:                    |
|                 |   S       S   |                   |
|                ||---         ---||                  |
|                ||<, (B)  (B)  ,>||                  |
|             G--||-+-         -+-||--G               |
|                 |   D       D   |                   |
+---------------+-------------------------------------+
| DIODE:        |   ZENER                             |
| -->|--  |  |  |                                     |
|         V  A  |   --L<--                            |
| --|<--  |  |  |                                     |
|               |                                     |
+---------------+-------------------------------------+

**VALVE**

+-----------------------------------------------------+
|    TRIODE        PENTHODE     STREAM-TETRODE        |
|       A           __|__ A         __|__ A           |
|     __|__        /  |  \         /  |  \            |
|    /  |  \       | === |         | === |            |
|    | === |   G3 --.....|      F --\.../|            |
| G --.....|       |.....-- G2     |.....-- G2        |
|    |     |   G1 --.....|     G1 --.....|            |
|    \__@__/       |     |         |     |            |
|       |          \__@__/         \__@__/            |
|       K             |K              |K              |
+-----------------------------------------------------+
|   NEON LAMP      TYRATHRONE         LIGHT BULB      |
|     __|__          __|__                     |      |
|    /  |  \        /  |  \          --(X)--   |      |
|    | === |        | === |                   (X)     |
|    | === |      ----*   |                    |      |
|    \__|__/        | === |                    |      |
|       |           \__|__/                           |
|                      |                              |
+-----------------------------------------------------+

**ACTIVE**

+--------------------------+--------------------------+
|         OP-AMP           |        Sources           |
|     |\          |        |        |      |+         |
|    -|+\        / \       |      /---\  /---\        |
|     |  >-     /   \      |      | v |  | i |        |
|    -|-/      /     \     |      \---/  \---/        |
|     |/      /_+___-_\    |        |      |-         |
|               |   |      |      |                   |
|                          |    /---\                 |
|                          |    |~v | U=r.a*I.C1      |
|                          |    \---/                 |
|                          |      |                   |
+--------------------------+--------------------------+

**LOGIC**

+--------------------------+--------------------------+
|    _____                 |    _____                 |
|   |     |  amplifier/    |   |     |                |
|  -|  1  |- separator     |  -|  1  |O- NOT          |
|   |_____|                |   |_____|                |
|    _____                 |    _____                 |
|  -|     |                |  -|     |                |
|   |  &  |- AND           |   |  &  |O- NAND         |
|  -|_____|                |  -|_____|                |
|    _____                 |    _____                 |
|  -|     |                |  -|     |                |
|   | >=1 |- OR            |   | >=1 |O- NOR          |
|  -|_____|                |  -|_____|                |
|    _____                 |    _____                 |
|  -|     |                |  -|     |                |
|   | =1  |- XOR           |   | =1  |O- EX-NOR       |
|  -|_____|                |  -|_____|                |
+--------------------------+--------------------------+
| Examples of flip-flops   |   Example of counter     |
|     ____       __|__     |                          |
|    |    |     |  S  |    |      _|__|__|__|__       |
|  --|R  Q|-  --|J   Q|--  |     | Q1 Q2 Q4 Q8 |      |
|    |    |     |     |    |   --|C+           |      |
|  --|S /Q|-  -->C    |    |     |             |      |
|    |____|     |     |    |   --|C-           |      |
|             --|K  /Q|--  |     |______R______|      |
|               |__R__|    |            |             |
|                  |       |                          |
+--------------------------+--------------------------+

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